# C++: Bounded Knapsack Problem

A tourist wants to make a good trip at the weekend with his friends. They will go to the mountains to see the wonders of nature. So he needs some items during the trip. Food, clothing, etc. He has a good knapsack for carrying the things, but he knows that he can carry only 4 kg weight in his knapsack, because they will make the trip from morning to evening. He creates a list of what he wants to bring for the trip, but the total weight of all items is too much. He adds a value to each item. The value represents how important the thing for the tourist. The list contains which items are the wanted things for the trip, what is the weight and value of an item, and how many units does he have from each items.

This is the list:

Table of potential knapsack items
item weight (dag) (each) value (each) piece(s)
map 9 150 1
compass 13 35 1
water 153 200 2
sandwich 50 60 2
glucose 15 60 2
tin 68 45 3
banana 27 60 3
apple 39 40 3
cheese 23 30 1
beer 52 10 3
suntan cream 11 70 1
camera 32 30 1
T-shirt 24 15 2
trousers 48 10 2
umbrella 73 40 1
waterproof trousers 42 70 1
waterproof overclothes 43 75 1
note-case 22 80 1
sunglasses 7 20 1
towel 18 12 2
socks 4 50 1
book 30 10 2
knapsack ≤400 dag  ?  ?

The tourist can choose to take any combination of items from the list, and some number of each item is available (see the column “Piece(s)” of the list!). He may not cut the items, so he can only take whole units of any item.

Which items does the tourist carry in his knapsack so that their total weight does not exceed 4 kg, and their total value is maximised?
C++ DP solution. Initially taken from C but than fixed and refactored.

```#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
#include <algorithm>
#include <stdexcept>
#include <memory>
#include <sys/time.h>

using std::cout;
using std::endl;

class StopTimer
{
public:
StopTimer(): begin_(getUsec()) {}
unsigned long long getTime() const { return getUsec() - begin_; }
private:
static unsigned long long getUsec()
{//...you might want to use something else under Windows
timeval tv;
const int res = ::gettimeofday(&tv, 0);
if(res)
return 0;
return tv.tv_usec + 1000000 * tv.tv_sec;
}
unsigned long long begin_;
};

struct KnapsackTask
{
struct Item
{
std::string name;
unsigned w, v, qty;
Item(): w(), v(), qty() {}
Item(const std::string& iname, unsigned iw, unsigned iv, unsigned iqty):
name(iname), w(iw), v(iv), qty(iqty)
{}
};
typedef std::vector<Item> Items;
struct Solution
{
unsigned v, w;
unsigned long long iterations, usec;
std::vector<unsigned> n;
Solution(): v(), w(), iterations(), usec() {}
};
//...
KnapsackTask(): maxWeight_(), totalWeight_() {}
void add(const Item& item)
{
const unsigned totalItemWeight = item.w * item.qty;
if(const bool invalidItem = !totalItemWeight)
throw std::logic_error("Invalid item: " + item.name);
totalWeight_ += totalItemWeight;
items_.push_back(item);
}
const Items& getItems() const { return items_; }
void setMaxWeight(unsigned maxWeight) { maxWeight_ = maxWeight; }
unsigned getMaxWeight() const { return std::min(totalWeight_, maxWeight_); }

private:
unsigned maxWeight_, totalWeight_;
Items items_;
};

class BoundedKnapsackRecursiveSolver
{
public:
typedef KnapsackTask Task;
typedef Task::Item Item;
typedef Task::Items Items;
typedef Task::Solution Solution;

void solve(const Task& task)
{
Impl(task, solution_).solve();
}
const Solution& getSolution() const { return solution_; }
private:
class Impl
{
struct Candidate
{
unsigned v, n;
bool visited;
Candidate(): v(), n(), visited(false) {}
};
typedef std::vector<Candidate> Cache;
public:
Impl(const Task& task, Solution& solution):
items_(task.getItems()),
maxWeight_(task.getMaxWeight()),
maxColumnIndex_(task.getItems().size() - 1),
solution_(solution),
cache_(task.getMaxWeight() * task.getItems().size()),
iterations_(0)
{}
void solve()
{
if(const bool nothingToSolve = !maxWeight_ || items_.empty())
return;
StopTimer timer;
Candidate candidate;
solve(candidate, maxWeight_, items_.size() - 1);
convertToSolution(candidate);
solution_.usec = timer.getTime();
}
private:
void solve(Candidate& current, unsigned reminderWeight, const unsigned itemIndex)
{
++iterations_;

const Item& item(items_[itemIndex]);

if(const bool firstColumn = !itemIndex)
{
const unsigned maxQty = std::min(item.qty, reminderWeight/item.w);
current.v = item.v * maxQty;
current.n = maxQty;
current.visited = true;
}
else
{
const unsigned nextItemIndex = itemIndex - 1;
{
Candidate& nextItem = cachedItem(reminderWeight, nextItemIndex);
if(!nextItem.visited)
solve(nextItem, reminderWeight, nextItemIndex);
current.visited = true;
current.v = nextItem.v;
current.n = 0;
}
if(reminderWeight >= item.w)
{
for (unsigned numberOfItems = 1; numberOfItems <= item.qty; ++numberOfItems)
{
reminderWeight -= item.w;
Candidate& nextItem = cachedItem(reminderWeight, nextItemIndex);
if(!nextItem.visited)
solve(nextItem, reminderWeight, nextItemIndex);

const unsigned checkValue = nextItem.v + numberOfItems * item.v;
if ( checkValue > current.v)
{
current.v = checkValue;
current.n = numberOfItems;
}
if(!(reminderWeight >= item.w))
break;
}
}
}
}
void convertToSolution(const Candidate& candidate)
{
solution_.iterations = iterations_;
solution_.v = candidate.v;
solution_.n.resize(items_.size());

const Candidate* iter = &candidate;
unsigned weight = maxWeight_, itemIndex = items_.size() - 1;
while(true)
{
const unsigned currentWeight = iter->n * items_[itemIndex].w;
solution_.n[itemIndex] = iter->n;
weight -= currentWeight;
if(!itemIndex--)
break;
iter = &cachedItem(weight, itemIndex);
}
solution_.w = maxWeight_ - weight;
}
Candidate& cachedItem(unsigned weight, unsigned itemIndex)
{
return cache_[weight * maxColumnIndex_ + itemIndex];
}
const Items& items_;
const unsigned maxWeight_;
const unsigned maxColumnIndex_;
Solution& solution_;
Cache cache_;
unsigned long long iterations_;
};
Solution solution_;
};

void populateDataset(KnapsackTask& task)
{
typedef KnapsackTask::Item Item;
task.setMaxWeight( 400 );
task.add(Item("map",9,150,1));
task.add(Item("compass",13,35,1));
task.add(Item("water",153,200,2));
task.add(Item("sandwich",50,60,2));
task.add(Item("glucose",15,60,2));
task.add(Item("tin",68,45,3));
task.add(Item("banana",27,60,3));
task.add(Item("apple",39,40,3));
task.add(Item("cheese",23,30,1));
task.add(Item("beer",52,10,3));
task.add(Item("suntancream",11,70,1));
task.add(Item("camera",32,30,1));
task.add(Item("T-shirt",24,15,2));
task.add(Item("trousers",48,10,2));
task.add(Item("umbrella",73,40,1));
task.add(Item("w-trousers",42,70,1));
task.add(Item("w-overclothes",43,75,1));
task.add(Item("note-case",22,80,1));
task.add(Item("sunglasses",7,20,1));
task.add(Item("towel",18,12,2));
task.add(Item("socks",4,50,1));
task.add(Item("book",30,10,2));
}

int main()
{
KnapsackTask task;
populateDataset(task);

BoundedKnapsackRecursiveSolver solver;
solver.solve(task);
const KnapsackTask::Solution& solution = solver.getSolution();

cout << "Iterations to solve: " << solution.iterations << endl;
cout << "Time to solve: " << solution.usec << " usec" << endl;
cout << "Solution:" << endl;
for (unsigned i = 0; i < solution.n.size(); ++i)
{
if (const bool itemIsNotInKnapsack = !solution.n[i])
continue;
cout << "  " << solution.n[i] << ' ' << task.getItems()[i].name << " ( item weight = " << task.getItems()[i].w << " )" << endl;
}

cout << "Weight: " << solution.w << " Value: " << solution.v << endl;
return 0;
}
```

SOURCE

Content is available under GNU Free Documentation License 1.2.