# C++: Knight’s Tour

Problem: you have a standard 8×8 chessboard, empty but for a single knight on some square. Your task is to emit a series of legal knight moves that result in the knight visiting every square on the chessboard exactly once. Note that it is not a requirement that the tour be “closed”; that is, the knight need not end within a single move of its start position.

Input and output may be textual or graphical, according to the conventions of the programming environment. If textual, squares should be indicated in algebraic notation. The output should indicate the order in which the knight visits the squares, starting with the initial position. The form of the output may be a diagram of the board with the squares numbered according to visitation sequence, or a textual list of algebraic coordinates in order, or even an actual animation of the knight moving around the chessboard.

Input: starting square

Output: move sequence

Works with: C++11

Uses Warnsdorff’s rule and (iterative) backtracking if that fails.

```#include <iostream>
#include <iomanip>
#include <array>
#include <string>
#include <tuple>
#include <algorithm>
using namespace std;

template<int N = 8>
class Board
{
public:
array<pair<int, int>, 8> moves;
array<array<int, N>, N> data;

Board()
{
moves[0] = make_pair(2, 1);
moves[1] = make_pair(1, 2);
moves[2] = make_pair(-1, 2);
moves[3] = make_pair(-2, 1);
moves[4] = make_pair(-2, -1);
moves[5] = make_pair(-1, -2);
moves[6] = make_pair(1, -2);
moves[7] = make_pair(2, -1);
}

array<int, 8> sortMoves(int x, int y) const
{
array<tuple<int, int>, 8> counts;
for(int i = 0; i < 8; ++i)
{
int dx = get<0>(moves[i]);
int dy = get<1>(moves[i]);

int c = 0;
for(int j = 0; j < 8; ++j)
{
int x2 = x + dx + get<0>(moves[j]);
int y2 = y + dy + get<1>(moves[j]);

if (x2 < 0 || x2 >= N || y2 < 0 || y2 >= N)
continue;
if(data[y2][x2] != 0)
continue;

c++;
}

counts[i] = make_tuple(c, i);
}

// Shuffle to randomly break ties
random_shuffle(counts.begin(), counts.end());

// Lexicographic sort
sort(counts.begin(), counts.end());

array<int, 8> out;
for(int i = 0; i < 8; ++i)
out[i] = get<1>(counts[i]);
return out;
}

void solve(string start)
{
for(int v = 0; v < N; ++v)
for(int u = 0; u < N; ++u)
data[v][u] = 0;

int x0 = start[0] - 'a';
int y0 = N - (start[1] - '0');
data[y0][x0] = 1;

array<tuple<int, int, int, array<int, 8>>, N*N> order;
order[0] = make_tuple(x0, y0, 0, sortMoves(x0, y0));

int n = 0;
while(n < N*N-1)
{
int x = get<0>(order[n]);
int y = get<1>(order[n]);

bool ok = false;
for(int i = get<2>(order[n]); i < 8; ++i)
{
int dx = moves[get<3>(order[n])[i]].first;
int dy = moves[get<3>(order[n])[i]].second;

if(x+dx < 0 || x+dx >= N || y+dy < 0 || y+dy >= N)
continue;
if(data[y + dy][x + dx] != 0)
continue;

++n;
get<2>(order[n]) = i + 1;
data[y+dy][x+dx] = n + 1;
order[n] = make_tuple(x+dx, y+dy, 0, sortMoves(x+dx, y+dy));
ok = true;
break;
}

if(!ok) // Failed. Backtrack.
{
data[y][x] = 0;
--n;
}
}
}

template<int N>
friend ostream& operator<<(ostream &out, const Board<N> &b);
};

template<int N>
ostream& operator<<(ostream &out, const Board<N> &b)
{
for (int v = 0; v < N; ++v)
{
for (int u = 0; u < N; ++u)
{
if (u != 0) out << ",";
out << setw(3) << b.data[v][u];
}
out << endl;
}
return out;
}

int main()
{
Board<5> b1;
b1.solve("c3");
cout << b1 << endl;

Board<8> b2;
b2.solve("b5");
cout << b2 << endl;

Board<31> b3; // Max size for <1000 squares
b3.solve("a1");
cout << b3 << endl;
return 0;
}
```

Output:

``` 23, 16, 11,  6, 21
10,  5, 22, 17, 12
15, 24,  1, 20,  7
4,  9, 18, 13,  2
25, 14,  3,  8, 19

63, 20,  3, 24, 59, 36,  5, 26
2, 23, 64, 37,  4, 25, 58, 35
19, 62, 21, 50, 55, 60, 27,  6
22,  1, 54, 61, 38, 45, 34, 57
53, 18, 49, 44, 51, 56,  7, 28
12, 15, 52, 39, 46, 31, 42, 33
17, 48, 13, 10, 43, 40, 29,  8
14, 11, 16, 47, 30,  9, 32, 41

275,112, 19,116,277,604, 21,118,823,770, 23,120,961,940, 25,122,943,926, 27,124,917,898, 29,126,911,872, 31,128,197,870, 33
18,115,276,601, 20,117,772,767, 22,119,958,851, 24,121,954,941, 26,123,936,925, 28,125,912,899, 30,127,910,871, 32,129,198
111,274,113,278,605,760,603,822,771,824,769,948,957,960,939,944,953,942,927,916,929,918,897,908,913,900,873,196,875, 34,869
114, 17,600,273,602,775,766,773,768,949,850,959,852,947,952,955,932,937,930,935,924,915,920,905,894,909,882,901,868,199,130
271,110,279,606,759,610,761,776,821,764,825,816,951,956,853,938,945,934,923,928,919,896,893,914,907,904,867,874,195,876, 35
16,581,272,599,280,607,774,765,762,779,950,849,826,815,946,933,854,931,844,857,890,921,906,895,886,883,902,881,200,131,194
109,270,281,580,609,758,611,744,777,820,763,780,817,848,827,808,811,846,855,922,843,858,889,892,903,866,885,192,877, 36,201
282, 15,582,269,598,579,608,757,688,745,778,819,754,783,814,847,828,807,810,845,856,891,842,859,884,887,880,863,202,193,132
267,108,283,578,583,612,689,614,743,756,691,746,781,818,753,784,809,812,829,806,801,840,835,888,865,862,203,878,191,530, 37
14,569,268,585,284,597,576,619,690,687,742,755,692,747,782,813,752,785,802,793,830,805,860,841,836,879,864,529,204,133,190
107,266,285,570,577,584,613,686,615,620,695,684,741,732,711,748,739,794,751,786,803,800,839,834,861,528,837,188,531, 38,205
286, 13,568,265,586,575,596,591,618,685,616,655,696,693,740,733,712,749,738,795,792,831,804,799,838,833,722,527,206,189,134
263,106,287,508,571,590,587,574,621,592,639,694,683,656,731,710,715,734,787,750,737,796,791,832,721,798,207,532,187,474, 39
12,417,264,567,288,509,572,595,588,617,654,657,640,697,680,713,730,709,716,735,788,727,720,797,790,723,526,473,208,135,186
105,262,289,416,507,566,589,512,573,622,593,638,653,682,659,698,679,714,729,708,717,736,789,726,719,472,533,184,475, 40,209
290, 11,418,261,502,415,510,565,594,513,562,641,658,637,652,681,660,699,678,669,728,707,718,675,724,525,704,471,210,185,136
259,104,291,414,419,506,503,514,511,564,623,548,561,642,551,636,651,670,661,700,677,674,725,706,703,534,211,476,183,396, 41
10,331,260,493,292,501,420,495,504,515,498,563,624,549,560,643,662,635,650,671,668,701,676,673,524,705,470,395,212,137,182
103,258,293,330,413,494,505,500,455,496,547,516,485,552,625,550,559,644,663,634,649,672,667,702,535,394,477,180,397, 42,213
294,  9,332,257,492,329,456,421,490,499,458,497,546,517,484,553,626,543,558,645,664,633,648,523,666,469,536,393,220,181,138
255,102,295,328,333,412,491,438,457,454,489,440,459,486,545,518,483,554,627,542,557,646,665,632,537,478,221,398,179,214, 43
8,319,256,335,296,345,326,409,422,439,436,453,488,441,460,451,544,519,482,555,628,541,522,647,468,631,392,219,222,139,178
101,254,297,320,327,334,411,346,437,408,423,368,435,452,487,442,461,450,445,520,481,556,629,538,479,466,399,176,215, 44,165
298,  7,318,253,336,325,344,349,410,347,360,407,424,383,434,427,446,443,462,449,540,521,480,467,630,391,218,223,164,177,140
251,100,303,300,321,316,337,324,343,350,369,382,367,406,425,384,433,428,447,444,463,430,539,390,465,400,175,216,169,166, 45
6,299,252,317,304,301,322,315,348,361,342,359,370,381,366,405,426,385,432,429,448,389,464,401,174,217,224,163,150,141,168
99,250,241,302,235,248,307,338,323,314,351,362,341,358,371,380,365,404,377,386,431,402,173,388,225,160,153,170,167, 46,143
240,  5, 98,249,242,305,234,247,308,339,232,313,352,363,230,357,372,379,228,403,376,387,226,159,154,171,162,149,142,151, 82
63,  2,239, 66, 97,236,243,306,233,246,309,340,231,312,353,364,229,356,373,378,227,158,375,172,161,148,155,152, 83,144, 47
4, 67, 64, 61,238, 69, 96, 59,244, 71, 94, 57,310, 73, 92, 55,354, 75, 90, 53,374, 77, 88, 51,156, 79, 86, 49,146, 81, 84
1, 62,  3, 68, 65, 60,237, 70, 95, 58,245, 72, 93, 56,311, 74, 91, 54,355, 76, 89, 52,157, 78, 87, 50,147, 80, 85, 48,145```

SOURCE

Content is available under GNU Free Documentation License 1.2.